Analisis Risiko Kejadian Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah (BBLR) pada Pasien Preeklamsi di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Hasan Sadikin Periode Januari–Desember 2019

Tri Karyadi, Hanom Husni Syam, Hartanto Bayuaji

Abstract


Tujuan: Preeklamsi adalah peningkatan tekanan darah (tekanan sitolik ≥140 mmHg atau diastolik ≥90 mmHg) pada wanita yang sebelumnya memiliki tekanan darah normal, dan proteinuria, atau gejala klinis berat. Abnormalitas plasentasi serta perfusi plasenta yang buruk menyebabkan hipoksia pada janin sehingga terjadinya bayi lahir dengan berat rendah. BBLR (Bayi Berat Lahir Rendah) adalah berat lahir <2.500 gram. BBLR diasosiasikan dengan risiko kematian yang tinggi, disabilitas neurologis jangka panjang, perkembangan bahasa yang terhambat, dan peningkatan risiko penyakit-penyakit kronis.
Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional (potong lintang). Data dikumpulkan dari data yang tersedia pada rekam medis pasien yang melakukan persalinan di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin pada bulan Januari hingga bulan Desember tahun 2019.
Hasil: Terdapat 252 (11,4%) ibu hamil dengan preeklamsi dari seluruh subjek. Prevalensi BBLR pada subjek total adalah 49,2%. Bayi dengan BBLR lebih banyak terjadi pada kelompok preeklamsi dibandingkan dengan kelompok non preeklamsi, yaitu 60,3% dibandingkan 47,8% (p < 0,001). Kelompok preeklamsi memiliki rerata BBL yang lebih rendah secara signifikan dibandingkan kelompok non preeklamsi, yaitu 2.255,6 + 741,5 gram dibandingkan 2.465,5 + 696,2 gram (p <0,001).
Kesimpulan: Terdapat hubungan bermakna antara preeklamsi dengan kejadian BBLR di Rumah sakit Hasan Sadikin.

Risk Analysis of the Incidence of Low Birth Weight Infants in Preeclampsia Patient in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Periode January–December 2019


Abstract
Objective: Preeclampsia is an increase in blood pressure (systolic pressure 140 mmHg or diastolic 90 mmHg) in women who previously had normal blood pressure, and proteinuria, or severe clinical symptoms. Abnormal placentation and poor placental perfusion cause fetal hypoxia resulting in low birth weight babies. LBW (Low Birth Weight Babies) is birth weight <2,500 grams. LBW is associated with a high risk of death, long-term neurological disability, delayed language development, and an increased risk of chronic diseases.
Method: This study used an analytical observational research design with a cross-sectional approach. The data collected is based on the results of the data available in the medical records of patients who gave birth at Dr. RSUP. Hasan Sadikin in January to December 2019.
Result: There were 252 (11.4%) pregnant women with preeclampsia from all subjects. The prevalence of LBW in total subjects was 49.2%. Babies with LBW were more common in the preeclampsia group compared to the non-preeclampsia group, namely 60.3% compared to 47.8% (p < 0.001). The preeclampsia group had a significantly lower mean BBL than the non-preeclampsia group, which was 2,255.6 + 741.5 grams compared to 2,465.5 + 696.2 grams (p < 0.001).
Conclusion:  It can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between preeclampsia and the incidence      of LBW at Hasan Sadikin Hospital.

Key word: Preeclampsia, LBW


Keywords


Preeklampsi, BBLR

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24198/obgynia/v4n2.301

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