Update Manajemen Preeklamsia dengan Komplikasi Berat (Eklamsia, Edema Paru, Sindrom HELLP)

Nuswil Bernolian, Wim T Pangemanan, A. Kurdi Syamsuri, M. Hatta Ansyori, Putri Mirani, Peby Maulina Lestari, Abarham Martadiansyah, Cindy Kesty


Abstract


Tujuan: Seiring dengan bertambahnya insidensi preeklamsia dengan komplikasi berat, manajemen yang adekuat diperlukan. Penulisan artikel ini bertujuan untuk memaparkan update manajemen preeklamsia dengan komplikasi berat (eklamsia, edema paru, dan sindrom HELLP).
Metode: Tinjauan pustaka (literature review) dengan menggunakan 15 referensi antara tahun 2011–2020.
Hasil: Manajemen preeklamsia dengan komplikasi berat membutuhkan pendekatan multidisiplin, medikamentosa (kalsium 1,5–2 gram/hari; aspirin dosis rendah 75–150 mg/hari; MgSO4 dengan dosis awal 4–6 gram IV dan pemeliharaan 1-2 gram/jam hingga 24 jam pascasalin; kortikosteroid; antihipertensi seperti labetalol, hidralazin, nifedipin, natrium nitroprusside, nitrogliserin), dan non-medikamentosa (olahraga, pembatasan cairan). Sementara itu, prinsip penanganan awal eklamsia, yaitu D (Dangers) – R (Response) – S (Send for Help) – A (Airway) – B (Breathing) – C (Compressions) – D (Defibrillation). Adapun manajemen obstetri pada kasus preeklamsia dengan gejala berat, yaitu manajemen ekspektatif dan persalinan (spontan ataupun seksio sesaria).
Kesimpulan: Tatalaksana yang cepat dan tepat pada kasus preeklamsia dengan komplikasi berat sangat diperlukan untuk mengurangi morbiditas pada ibu dan janin. Manajemen kasus preeklamsia dengan gejala berat berupa manajemen ekspektatif dan persalinan (spontan ataupun seksio sesaria).

Update on Management of Preeclampsia with Severe Features (Eclampsia, Pulmonary Edema, HELLP Syndrome)

Abstract
Objective: As the incidence of preeclampsia with severe features increases, adequate management is required. The purpose of this review is to present an update on the management of preeclampsia with severe features (eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and HELLP syndrome).
Method: Literature review using 15 references between 2011–2020.
Results: Management of preeclampsia with severe features requires a multidisciplinary, medical approach (calcium 1.5–2 g/day; low-dose aspirin 75–150 mg/day; magnesium sulfate at an initial dose of 4–6 g IV and maintenance 1-2 g/hour to 24 hours postpartum; corticosteroids; antihypertensives such as labetalol, hydralazine, nifedipine, sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin) and non-medical (exercise, fluid restriction). Meanwhile, the principles of early management of eclampsia, namely D (Dangers) – R (Response) – S (Send for Help) – A (Airway) – B (Breathing) – C (Compressions) – D (Defibrillation). The obstetric management in cases of preeclampsia with severe features is expectant management and delivery (spontaneous or cesarean section).
Conclusion: Prompt and appropriate management of cases of preeclampsia with severe features is needed to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity. Management of preeclampsia cases with severe features is expectant management and delivery (spontaneous or cesarean section).

Key words: preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, severe.


Keywords


preeklamsia, eklamsia, sindrom HELLP, berat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24198/obgynia/v6n1.402

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